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"# When should I use ZNE?\n",
"\n",
"## Advantages\n",
"\n",
"Zero noise extrapolation is one of the simplest error mitigation techniques and, in many practical situations, it can be applied with a relatively small sampling cost.\n",
"The main advantage of ZNE is that the technique can be applied without a detailed knowledge of\n",
"the underlying noise model. Therefore it can be a good option in situations where\n",
"tomography is impractical.\n",
"\n",
"\n",
"## Disadvantages\n",
"\n",
"In some instances the results of the extrapolation can exhibit a large bias\n",
"{cite}`Mari_2021_PRA`. ZNE may not be helpful in cases where a low degree\n",
"polynomial curve obtained by fitting the noisy expectation values does not match the\n",
"zero-noise limit. When using circuits of less trivial depth on real devices, the\n",
"lowest error points may be too noisy for the extrapolation to show improvement over\n",
"the unmitigated result {cite}`Lowe_2021_PRR`.\n",
"\n",
"## Example\n",
"\n",
"For a simple example in which the application of ZNE reduces the estimation error when\n",
"compared to the unmitigated result, see:\n",
"\n",
"[Zero Noise Extrapolation for mitigating errors in energy landscape of a two-qubit\n",
"variational circuit](https://mitiq.readthedocs.io/en/latest/examples/simple-landscape-cirq.html)"
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